Diseases:

Foot and mouth disease
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven footed animalsincluding cattle, sheep, goat and pigs. This disease is endemic in India and producing serious economic losses to the country due to the ban on export of livestock products to other countries and reduced productivity of diseased animals.

What are the symptoms?
The disease is characterized by blister-like lesions on the tongue, nose and lips, in the mouth, on the teats and between the toes which then burst, leaving painful ulcers. The blisters cause a heavy flow of sticky, foamy saliva that hangs from the mouth. Infected animals sway from one foot to the other due to the tenderness of the feet. Although older cattle usually do not die from the infection, they suffer a severe illness which leaves them in a weakened state. They have high fevers, stop eating, give less milk and become lame.

How this disease spread?
The virus is extremely contagious and spreads rapidly unless it is contained. This usually requires quarantining infected farms, followed by slaughtering and burning all susceptible animals. Anyone having contact with animals in infected countries should not go near susceptible animals for at least five days.

How to control the spread?
• The healthy susceptible animals should not be transported to the endemic areas
• Animals should not be purchased from disease affected areas
• Newly purchased animals should be quarantined for 21 days from the other animals in the farm

Treatment
The nearest Vety officer or para veterinarien of the department should be contacted for treatment and prevention. If not the information can be given to Foot & Mouth Section of the department
Vaccination Schedule

• Vaccination of all susceptible animals with FMD vaccine once in 6 months. Vaccination programme should include cattle, sheep, goat and pigs.
• First vaccination to the calves should be given at the age of 4 months and second vaccine should be given at 5th month. Thereafter booster doses should be given once in 4-6 months


Black Quarter - Animal Disease
• Synonyms: Black - leg, Farrya Char charea
• It is an acute infectious and highly fatal, bacterial disease of cattle. Buffaloes, sheep and goats are also affected. Young cattle between 6-24 months of age, in good body condition are mostly affected. It is soil-borne infection which generally occurs during rainy season. In India, the disease is sporadic (1-2 animal) in nature.
• Etiology: It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei
• Transmission:
• The disease spreads through
• a) Ingestion of contaminated feed and
   b) Contamination of wounds.
Symptoms:
1. Fever (106-10S°F)
2. Loss of appetite
3. Depression, dullness
4. Suspended rumination
5. Rapid pulse and heart rates
6. Difficult breathing (dyspnoea)
7. Lameness in affected leg.
8 Crepitation swelling over hip, back & shoulder.
9. Swelling is hot & painful in early stages whereas cold and painless inter.
10. Recumbency (prostration) followed by death within 12-48 hrs.

Diagnosis:
1. History of age, body condition & season.
2. Symptoms - high fever, Crepitation swelling and lameness.
3. P.M. findings - dark colored muscles with gaseous infiltration.
4. Examination of smears made from affected (issues or fluid from the swelling.
5. Isolation of the organism.

Treatment
The nearest Vety officer or paravet of the department should be contacted for treatment and prevention.
Hemorrhagic Septicaemia - Animal Disease
Synonyms: Pasturellosis, shipping fever, ghatsurp
It is an actual infectious disease of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat. It distances transportation. In India, the disease is enzootic in nature. Etiology environmental conditions, malnutrition and long distance transportation. In India, the disease is enzootic in nature.
Etiology: It is caused by Pasteurella multocida

Transmission:
1. Ingestion of contaminated feed and water and
2. Inhalation.

Symptoms:
1. High fever (106 - 107°F)
2. Loss of appetite
3. Suspended rumination
4. Dullness and depression
5. Rapid pulse & heart rate
6. Profuse salivation and laciration.
7. Profuse nasal discharge
8. Difficult/snoring respiration
9. Swelling of throat region (submandibular oedema)
10. Death within 10-72 hours."

Diagnosis:
1. History of season, climate & stress factor.
2. Symptoms -high fever, swelling of throat region.
3. Postmortem findings - hemorrhages throughout body & submandibular  edema.
4. Examination of blood smears and smears from oedematus fluid.
5. Isolation of the organism from blood & edematous fluid.

Treatment:
Treatment is effective if given in early stage of disease. The nearest Vety officer or paravet of the department should be contacted for treatment and prevention

Anthrax -
Synonyms: Splenic fever, fanshi, kalpuli Ban
It is an acute widespread infectious disease of all warm blooded animals specially cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat. It is communicable to man i.e. Zoonotic disease. It is soil-borne infection. It usually occurs after major climatic change. The disease is enzootic in India.
Etiology: This disease is caused by bacteria called Bacillus authracis.

Transmission:
1. It usually spreads through ingestion of contaminated feed and water.
2. Sometimes, it also occurs by inhalation and biling flies.

Symptoms:
1. Sudden rise in body temperature (104 - 10S°F)
2. Loss of appetite i.e. off-feed.
3. Severe depression or dullness.
4. Suspended rumination
5. Increased respiration and heart rate
6. Bloat or tympany.
7. Dyspnoea - difficult breathing
8. Dysentery or diarrhoea,
9. Bleeding from natural openings like anus, nostrils, vulva etc.
10. Sudden death in peracute cases.

Diagnosis:
1. History of sudden change in climate and sudden death,
2. Symptom - sudden death & bleeding from natural openings.
3. Postmortem findings:
1. Oozing of dark: tarry Coloured poorly clotted blood from natural opening
2. Enlargement of spleen i.e. Splenomegenly.
4. Microscopic examination of blood smears.
5. Isolation and identification of organism.

Treatment The nearest Vety officer or paravet of the department should be contacted for treatment and prevention
Control:
1. General measures: Identification and isolation of affected animals.
2. Movement of animals from infected area to clean area should be stopped.
3. Deep burial of dead animals.
4. Destroy contaminated fodder by burning.
5. Thorough disinfection of cattle shed by using 10% caustic Soda or formalin.
6. Never conduct postmortem of the annual suspected lo be died of Anthrax.
7. Anthrax spore vaccine @ 1 ml subcut every year before onset of monsoon in areas where anthrax outbreaks are common.

Rinder Pest –
Synonyms: Cattle plague, Bovine typhus, Bulkandi
It is an acute highly contagious viral disease of ruminants and pig. Crossbred and young cattle are more susceptible to this virus.
Etiology: It is caused by paramyxovirus.

Transmission:
1. It spreads primarily through inhalation.
2. It also spreads through ingestion of contaminated feed and water.

Symptoms:
1. Fever usually persists for 3 days.
2. Loss of appetite (off feed)
3. Drop in milk yield
4. Suspended rumination
5. Conjunctiva becomes dark red i.e. congested
6. Ladriation.
7. Nasal discharge
8. Necrotic ulcers or erosions on oral mucus membrane.
9. Salivation
10. Shooting diarrhoea.
11. Abdominal pain/colic
12. Dehydration
13. Death within 6-12 days

Diagnosis:
1. History of an outbreak and symptoms.
2. Postmortem findings - Zebra markings in intestine.
3. Isolation of virus from blood, spleen & lymphnodes.
4. Serological tests.

MASTITIS
Synonyms: Mastitis, Dagadi Thunelo
Mastitis-denotes an inflanation of the udder, this disease is responsible for heavy financial losses to dairyman due to discarding of abnormal milk, reduced milk production and butter fat, decreased market value of cow and cost of drugs and veterinary services.
In addition to this, the mastitic milk causes dreadly diseases like tuberculosis, brucellosis, sore throat, food poisoning etc. in human beings.

Etiology:
A. Infectious agents:
1. Bacteria - Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, E. coli
2. Viral diseases - Cow pox, FMD
3. Fungus - Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus
4. Mycoplasm
B. Predisposing factors
1. Trail mil or injury to teat and udder.
2. High milk yield.
3. Incomplete or irregular milking.
4. Improper milking techniques.
5. Pendulous udder and long cylindrical teats.
6. Rough flooring.
7. Unhygienic conditions.

Transmission: It spreads through infected water, contaminated bedding, utensils, milkers hands.

Symptoms:
a) Acute form:
1. Fever
2. Loss of appetite.
3. Udder is swollen, hot and painful.
4. Milk may be yellowish or brownish,
5. Milk contains flakes or clots.
b) Chronic form:
1. No swelling of udder.
2. Udder becomes hard due to fibrosis.
3. Milk may show visible changes on careful examination.

Diagnosis:
1. Physical examination of udder i.e. shape, size and consultancy
2. Strip cup test - A strip cup consists of a flat black enamelled plate partitioned into four areas. The milk form all four quarters is stripped directly into cup. The presence of clots or flakes will indicate abnormality of milk.
3. California Mastitis Test (CMT) - This test requires plastic paddle with four chambers. Milk is stripped directly into chambers. The CMP reagent is added in the equal quantity. The milk and reagent is rotated by movement of the paddle and the reaction is observed immediately. Formation of greenish blue precipitate or jelly like clot indicates positive test.
4. Isolation of the organism from milk.

Treatment:
The nearest Vety officer or paravet of the department should be contacted for treatment and prevention

Control:
1. Isolation and treatment of affected animals.
2. Treatment of all teats of all cows at drying.
3. The healthy non infected cows should be milked first and known infected cow should be milked at last.
4. The udder of cow and hands of milker should be washed with antiseptic solution before and after milking.
5. The floor of the milking shed should be washed with running water.
6. Cows should be provided with soft bedding following parturition.
7. Unsterile objects should not be passed in teat.
8. Teat sores should not be neglected and treated at an earliest.
9. Regular testing of cow milk for mastitis.
10. Use of proper milking method i.e. full hand milking followed by stripping.
11. Protect teats and udder from injuries.
12. Maintain hygienic conditions in cattle shed.
13. The non-responsive quarter should be permanently dried up.
14. Culling of non-responsive cases.
15. Proper disposal of mastitis milk.
 


AVIAN AND PANDEMIC INFLUENZA